Jeremy Bentham The origins of utilitarianism can be traced back as far as Epicurusbut, as a school of thought, it is credited to Jeremy Bentham who found that "nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure", then, from that moral insight, deriving the Rule of Utility: He defined the meaning of life as the " greatest happiness principle ". Jeremy Bentham 's foremost proponent was James Milla significant philosopher in his day, and father of John Stuart Mill.
Adapted by Fordham from Simkins It is also often argued that this should empower learners to understand and if necessary change the social structure around them. On the other hand examples of top-down non-formal programmes are all too common.
Almost all employer-led and State provided training falls into this category. This can be seen as paralleling the distinctions that Jeffs and Smithmake between formal and informal education via curriculum. In this way formal education would broadly approximate to top-down curriculum formation c Meaning of education non-formal to bottom-up or negotiated curriculum formation b ; and informal education would arguably be a non-curriculum or conversational form a.
Pointers to the success of non-formal programmes As Graham-Brown Training and motivation of literacy workers. The quality and relevance of materials.
The reinforcements of literacy. It is clear from the studies of literacy campaigns that both the commitment and skills of literacy promoters are very important. Enthusiasm is not enough.
It is not that straightforward to facilitate learner participation in dialogue and discussion. Certain skills are needed to put across ideas and so on. Many of the literacy workers are young mostly between 18 and 25 in the successful Botswana campaign.
This meant that they need not be automatically accepted or appreciated. In some campaigns there has been a considerable effort to try to recruit older workers and those who are known and held in good regard in a locality. In many campaigns workers are paid, and the job accords them some status although not necessarily accreditation or certification.
Where volunteers are recruited, for example in the Kenyan initiative, and who live in the local communities, the main incentive is often the hope that this might lead to a full time job. There has also been an emphasis on developing appropriate materials. Most of the various national literacy campaigns have had some central unit which developed materials etc for the workers etc.
To this must be added things like the production of regular radio programmes to support initiatives. However, this is both expensive and sophisticated and it is not proved that easy, for example, to update and change materials quite as has been needed.Online education, commonly referred to as distance learning, has become a popular option for busy professionals looking to upgrade their personal marketability through supplementary coursework.
Questions. Questions about the meaning of life have been expressed in a broad variety of ways, including the following: What is the meaning of life? Heretic definition, a professed believer who maintains religious opinions contrary to those accepted by his or her church or rejects doctrines prescribed by that church.
See more. Meaning: According to some learned people, the word "Education" has been derived from the Latin term "Educatum" which means the act of teaching or training.
What is non-formal education? Within policy debates a common differentiation has been made between different forms of provision. Informal, non-formal, and formal programmes have been viewed as . Education is the development of the abilities of the mind (learning to know): a liberal education.
Training is practical education (learning to do) or practice, usually under supervision, in some art, trade, or profession: training in art, teacher training.
4. learning, knowledge, enlightenment.