In the broadest terms, materialism, as Engels puts it, "insist[s] on explaining the world from the world itself" Dialectics of Nature 7. It is, to put it differently, the unyielding opponent of the otherworldly—of those projects that derive the material world from another world of spirit or that see in the natural world a super-natural force or design. In its most revolutionary tendency in the modern era, materialism is determination by the mode of production.
History[ edit ] The sociological theory of post-materialism was developed in the s by Ronald Inglehart. After extensive survey research, Inglehart postulated that the Western societies under the scope of his survey were undergoing transformation of individual values, switching from materialist values, emphasizing economic and physical security, to a new set of post-materialist values, which instead emphasized autonomy and self-expression.
Observing that the younger people were much more likely to embrace post-materialist values, Inglehart speculated that this silent revolution was not merely a case of a life-cycle change, with people becoming more materialist as they aged, but a genuine example of Generational Replacement causing intergenerational value change.
The scarcity hypothesis The socialisation hypothesis The scarcity hypothesis[ edit ] Inglehart assumed that individuals pursue various goals in something akin to a hierarchical order.
While people may universally aspire to freedom and autonomy, the most pressing material needs like hunger, thirst and physical security have to be satisfied first, since they are immediately linked with survival.
On the other hand, cohorts who have experienced sustained high material affluence start to give high priority to values such as individual improvement, personal freedomcitizen input in government decisions, the ideal of a society based on humanismand maintaining a clean and healthy environment.
Together, these two hypotheses carry the implication that, given long periods of material affluence, a growing part of society will embrace post-materialist value systems, an implication which has been indeed borne out internationally in the past 30 years of survey data.
The post-material orientations acquired by each cohort during socialisation have been observed to remain remarkably steady over the time-frame of multiple decades, being a more stable value -system in contrast to the more volatile political and social attitudes.
Measuring post-materialism[ edit ] There are several ways of empirically measuring the spread of post-materialism in a society. If you had to choose among the following things, which are the two that seem the most desirable to you?
Maintaining order in the nation. Giving people more say in important political decisions. Protecting freedom of speech.
Amongst others, the validitythe stability, and the causation of post-materialism has been doubted. The so-called "Inglehart-index" has been included in several surveys e.
From to the share of "pure post-materialists" increased from 13 to 31 percent in West Germany. After the economic and social stress caused by German reunification in it dropped to 23 percent in and stayed on that level afterwards Terwey In spite of some questions raised by these and other data, measurements of post-materialism have prima facie proven to be statistically important variables in many analyses.
In some way post-materialism may be described as super-materialism. German data show that there is a tendency towards this orientation among young people, in the economically rather secure public service, and in the managerial middle class Pappi and Terwey Recently, the issue of a "second generation of postmateralism" appearing on the scene of worldwide civil society, to a large extent conceived as their "positive ideological embodiment", has been brought up by cultural scientist Roland Benedikter in his seven-volume book series Postmaterialismus —Global environmental problems, depletion of resources, damages to the environment and overpopulation are considered to be the most important challenges of our post-modern age.
The Spectral Ontology and Miraculous Materialism.
Kimberly DeFazio. Žižek's Communist (Hypo)thesis (against which the bourgeoisie deployed materialism to challenge the spiritualizations that justified aristocratic rule), bourgeois theorists have waged a protracted war against materialism and ontology in their efforts to naturalize.
Hypothesis problems such as ozone depletion, global warming, pollution, 1a–1c stated that the paths from success, happiness, and damage from chemicals, resource shortages, and species centrality in the materialism construct to environmental beliefs extinction.
The new materialism articulates “a sense of planet” that makes possible “eco-cosmopolitan” membership in global ecosocial community that carries with it ethical obligations across borders of all kinds (Heise xx).
Our analysis lends support to the argument of global environmentalism and demonstrates that contrary to the prediction of the post-materialism hypothesis, levels of “strong” public concern about climate change are generally higher in developing countries.
populationenviro Population and Environment Human Sciences Press Environmentalism and Contraceptive Use: How People in Less Developed Settings Approach Environmental Issues Dirgha J.
Ghimire Paul Mohai 1 9 29 Global environmentalism: A challenge to the post-materialism thesis. Social Science Quarterly, 75(2), –