Agrarian reform and the politics of rural change Rapid urbanization and the politics of the urban poor The political economy of third world countries The African continent is considered to be one of the most important regions in the world at the moment in the international politics. This is largely due to the continuous conflicting situations that mark the evolution of states such as Ethiopia, Chad, or Sudan.
This idea is known as the Prebisch—Singer thesis. Prebisch, an Argentine economist at the United Nations Commission for Latin America UNCLAwent on to conclude that the underdeveloped nations must employ some degree of protectionism in trade if they were to enter a self-sustaining development path.
He argued that import-substitution industrialisation ISInot a trade-and-export orientationwas the best strategy for underdeveloped countries.
Baran in with the publication of his The Political Economy of Growth. Some authors identify two main streams in dependency theory: Using the Latin American dependency model, the Guyanese Marxist historian Walter Rodneyin his book How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, described in an Africa that had been consciously exploited by European imperialists, leading directly to the modern underdevelopment of most of the continent.
It was used to explain the causes of overurbanizationa theory that urbanization rates outpaced industrial growth in several developing countries.
Technology — the Promethean force unleashed by the Industrial Revolution — is at the center of stage. The Center countries controlled the technology and the systems for generating technology. Foreign capital could not solve the problem, since it only led to limited transmission of technology, but not the process of innovation itself.
Baran and others frequently spoke of the international division of labour — skilled workers in the center; unskilled in the periphery — when discussing key features of dependency. Baran placed surplus extraction and capital accumulation at the center of his analysis.
Further, some of that surplus must be used for capital accumulation — the purchase of new means of production — if development is to occur; spending the surplus on things like luxury consumption does not produce development.
Baran noted two predominant kinds of economic activity in poor countries. In the older of the two, plantation agriculture, which originated in colonial timesmost of the surplus goes to the landowners, who use it to emulate the consumption patterns of wealthy people in the developed world; much of it thus goes to purchase foreign-produced luxury items —automobiles, clothes, etc.
The more recent kind of economic activity in the periphery is industry—but of a particular kind. It is usually carried out by foreigners, although often in conjunction with local interests.
It is often under special tariff protection or other government concessions. The surplus from this production mostly goes to two places: Again, little is used for development.
Baran thought that political revolution was necessary to break this pattern. In the s, members of the Latin American Structuralist school argued that there is more latitude in the system than the Marxists believed.
They argued that it allows for partial development or "dependent development"—development, but still under the control of outside decision makers. They cited the partly successful attempts at industrialisation in Latin America around that time Argentina, Brazil, Mexico as evidence for this hypothesis.
They were led to the position that dependency is not a relation between commodity exporters and industrialised countries, but between countries with different degrees of industrialisation.
In their approach, there is a distinction made between the economic and political spheres: Fajnzybler has made a distinction between systemic or authentic competitiveness, which is the ability to compete based on higher productivity, and spurious competitiveness, which is based on low wages.
He believes that the hegemonic position of the United States is very strong because of the importance of its financial markets and because it controls the international reserve currency — the US dollar.
Theotonio dos Santos described a "new dependency", which focused on both the internal and external relations of less-developed countries of the periphery, derived from a Marxian analysis. Former Brazilian President Fernando Henrique Cardoso in office — wrote extensively on dependency theory while in political exile during the s, arguing that it was an approach to studying the economic disparities between the centre and periphery.
Cardoso summarized his version of dependency theory as follows: Many of these authors focused their attention on Latin America; the leading dependency theorist in the Islamic world is the Egyptian economist Samir Amin. Regression in both agriculture and small scale industry characterizes the period after the onslaught of foreign domination and colonialism Unequal international specialization of the periphery leads to the concentration of activities in export-oriented agriculture and or mining.
This postulates a third category of countries, the semi-periphery, intermediate between the core and periphery. Wallerstein believed in a tri-modal rather than a bi-modal system because he viewed the world-systems as more complicated than a simplistic classification as either core or periphery nations.
To Wallerstein, many nations do not fit into one of these two categories, so he proposed the idea of a semi-periphery as an in between state within his model. The rise of one group of semi-peripheries tends to be at the cost of another group, but the unequal structure of the world economy based on unequal exchange tends to remain stable.Dependency Theory Theorists from all works of life have been trying their best to find the remedy in addressing the problems of third world countries.
Despite all these efforts, these countries, (third world) which are characterized with poverty, poor medical facilities, and poor road networks seem to be experiencing more of underdevelopment.
Dependency theory vs.
Modernization theory theoretical approach of the current situation in Sudan places in comparison the two main ideas related to country development. The dependency theory places in question the relation between the development of rich countries and that of poor countries.
Dependency Theory: An Introduction 1.
Vincent Ferraro, Mount Holyoke College South Hadley, MA July Background Dependency Theory developed in the late s under the guidance of the Director of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America, Raul Prebisch. Question 6 Which of the following describes dependency theory?
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH NURSING TERM PAPERS TODAY AND . Term Papers words ( pages) Modernization Theory Essay - Modernization Theory Modernization is the term used for the transition from the traditional society of the past to modern society as it is found today in the West.
Dependency and Modernization Theory Week 3: Dependency and Modernization Theory Key Concepts: Political decay/ failed state: Definition: A failed state is a state perceived as having failed at some of the basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government.