Australian parliamentary research papers

All elections Introduction This research paper provides a brief overview of the rules for determining the next Commonwealth, state, territory and local government elections. The paper lists the date of the next election where this is fixed or, where applicable, the earliest and latest possible dates on which it may occur. For an explanation of the electoral systems for federal, state and territory jurisdictions see the research paper by Scott Bennett and Rob Lundie, Australian Electoral Systems. The Australian Constitution requires periodic elections for both Houses of Parliament, with separate provisions reflecting the different constitutional role of each House.

Australian parliamentary research papers

From a comparative governmental perspective, the Australian Senate exhibits distinctive characteristics.

Australian parliamentary research papers

Unlike upper Houses in other Westminster system governments, the Senate is not a vestigial body with limited legislative power. Rather it was intended to play — and does play — an active role in legislation.

Rather than being Australian parliamentary research papers solely after the House of Lordsas the Canadian Senate was, the Australian Senate was in part modelled after the United States Senateby giving equal representation to each state and equal powers.

Although the Prime Minister and Treasurerby convention, are members of the House of Representatives after John Gorton was appointed prime minister inhe resigned from the Senate and was elected to the Houseother members of the Cabinet may come from either house, [5] and the two Houses have almost equal legislative power.

It is then passed to the Senate, which has the opportunity to amend the bill, pass or reject it. In the majority of cases, voting takes place along party linesalthough there are occasional conscience votes.

Electoral system of Australia The system for electing senators has changed several times since Federation. The original arrangement involved a first-past-the-post block voting or "winner takes all" system, on a state-by-state basis.

This was replaced in by preferential block voting. Block voting tended to produce landslide majorities and even "wipe-outs". For instance, from to the Nationalist Party held all but one of the 36 seats, and from tothe Labor Australian parliamentary research papers held all but three.

Insingle transferable vote proportional representation on a state-by-state basis became the method for electing Senators. From the election, group ticket voting was introduced, in order to reduce a high rate of informal voting that arose from the requirement that each candidate be given a preference, and to allow small parties and independent candidates a reasonable chance of winning a seat.

This allowed voters to select a single party "Above the Line" to distribute their preferences on their behalf, but voters were still able to vote directly for individual candidates and distribute their own preferences if they wished "Below the Line" by numbering every box.

In group tickets were abolished to avoid undue influence of preference deals amongst parties that were seen as distorting election results [6] and a form of optional preferential voting was introduced.

Australian parliamentary research papers

As a result of the changes, voters may assign their preferences for parties above the line numbering as many boxes as they wishor individual candidates below the line, and are not required to fill all of the boxes.

Both above and below the line voting now use optional preferential voting. For above the line, voters are instructed to number at least their first six preferences; however, a "savings provision" is in place to ensure that ballots will still be counted if less than six are given.

For below the line, voters are required to number at least their first 12 preferences. Voters are free to continue numbering as many preferences as they like beyond the minimum number specified.

Another savings provision allows ballot papers with at least 6 below the line preferences to be formal.

The voting changes make it more difficult for new small parties and independent candidates to be elected to the Senate. The senator argued that the changes meant the senators would not be "directly chosen by the people" as required by the constitution. The High Court decided that both above the line and below the line voting were valid methods for the people to choose their Senators.

Senate ballot paper used in Victoria for To vote correctly, electors must either: Vote for at least six parties above the thick black line, by writing the numbers in party boxes. Votes with less than six boxes numbered are still admitted to the count through savings provisions.

Votes with between six and twelve boxes numbered are still admitted to the count through savings provisions. Because each state elects six senators at each half-Senate election, the quota for election is only one-seventh or Once a candidate has been elected with votes reaching the quota amount, any votes they receive in addition to this may be distributed to other candidates as preferences.

With an odd number of seats in a half-Senate election 3 or 5 With an even number of seats in a half-Senate election 6 The ungrouped candidates in the far right column do not have a box above the line.

Therefore, they can only get a primary number 1 vote from electors who vote below the line. For this reason, some independents register as a group, either with other independents or by themselves, such as group B in the above example.Research Papers produced by the Parliamentary Library & Information Service, Department of Parliamentary Services, Parliament of Victoria are released under a .

Locating the last resting places of our family and forebears can be an important aspect of our genealogical research. For many, it will eventually lead to a journey to those places and to the exact spot to to pay their respects, often to kin we may have never met but with whom we have a forever bond.

The Australian Regional Development Conference will be held at Twin Towns Services Club, Tweed Heads, NSW on Monday 17 and Tuesday 18 September This annual conference will provide a platform to network and be part of the conversation on the learnings, solutions and challenges that regional and rural towns experience.

This collection covers issues that are vital to regional Australia. It includes policy research reports and data, discussion papers, evaluations, case studies and .

All Databases. Complete database listing. Cases & Legislation. Primary sources of law. Journals & Scholarship. Australasian Legal Scholarship. Treaties. Australian Treaties. Research papers Home / Australasian Parliamentary Review / Other publications / Research papers Material submitted to the APR may be considered more suited to publication as a research paper, where a worthy article does not have the required attributes, but is of substantive interest to the APR reader.

Research Papers –17 – Parliament of Australia