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Use in ancient cultures[ edit ] Aztec women are handed flowers and smoking tubes before eating at a banquet, Florentine Codex16th century. Smoking's history dates back to as early as — BC, when the agricultural product began to be cultivated in Mesoamerica and South America ; consumption later evolved into burning the plant substance either by accident or with intent of exploring other means of consumption.
Smoking in the Americas probably had its origins in the incense-burning ceremonies of shamans but was later adopted for pleasure or as a social tool.
Eastern North American tribes would carry large amounts of tobacco in pouches as a readily accepted trade item and would often smoke it in ceremonial pipeseither in sacred ceremonies or to seal bargains.
As a pain killer it was used for earache and toothache and occasionally as a poultice. Smoking was said by the desert Indians to be a cure for colds, especially if the tobacco was mixed with the leaves of the small desert SageSalvia dorriior the root of Indian balsam or cough rootLeptotaenia multifida, the addition of which was thought to be particularly good for asthma and tuberculosis.
Insix years after the settlement of Jamestown, VirginiaJohn Rolfe was credited as the first settler to successfully raise tobacco as a cash crop.
The demand quickly grew as tobacco, referred to as "brown gold", revived the Virginia joint stock company from its failed gold expeditions. This became a motivator to settle west into the unknown continent, and likewise an expansion of tobacco production.
However, the practice was revived in with the invention of the cotton gin. The first report of a smoking Englishman is of a sailor in Bristol inseen "emitting smoke from his nostrils".
At the same time, caravans from Morocco brought tobacco to the areas around Timbuktuand the Portuguese brought the commodity and the plant to southern Africa, establishing the popularity of tobacco throughout all of Africa by the s. Soon after its introduction to the Old World, tobacco came under frequent criticism from state and religious leaders.
Murad IVsultan of the Ottoman Empire —40 was among the first to attempt a smoking ban by claiming it was a threat to public morals and health. The Chongzhen Emperor of China issued an edict banning smoking two years before his death and the overthrow of the Ming dynasty.
Later, the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynastywould proclaim smoking "a more heinous crime than that even of neglecting archery". In Edo period Japan, some of the earliest tobacco plantations were scorned by the shogunate as being a threat to the military economy by letting valuable farmland go to waste for the use of a recreational drug instead of being used to plant food crops.
Religious leaders have often been prominent among those who considered smoking immoral or outright blasphemous.
Inthe Patriarch of Moscow forbade the sale of tobacco, and sentenced men and women who flouted the ban to have their nostrils slit and their backs flayed. Despite some concerted efforts, restrictions and bans were largely ignored.
From this point on for some centuries, several administrations withdrew from efforts at discouragement and instead turned tobacco trade and cultivation into sometimes lucrative government monopolies.
Tobacco, both product and plant, followed the major trade routes to major ports and markets, and then on into the hinterlands.Cochrane works collaboratively with contributors around the world to produce authoritative, relevant, and reliable evidence, in the form of Cochrane Reviews.
Studies have shown that smoke-free laws that ban smoking in public places like bars and restaurants help improve the health of workers. Smokefree Policies Improve Health. Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir.
On This Page. a random-effects meta-analysis of 45 studies of 33 smokefree laws with a median follow-up of 24 .
Published: Mon, 5 Dec “On the 26th March , smoking was banned in enclosed public places in Scotland.” This essay will consider different aspects of this ban, including a consideration of the extent to which the theory of externalities can be used to justify government legislating on smoking, an analysis and explanation of the short run .
Jan 23, · A report from the National Academy of Sciences said that e-cigarettes are safer than smoking, but not quite safe, and may cause teens to take up tobacco. Simulation models can be used to project the potential population-level effects of regulatory actions.
14 The purpose of this analysis . For men in developed countries, the full effects of smoking can already be seen. Tobacco causes one-third of all male deaths in the middle age group (plus one-fifth in the old age group) and is the cause of approximately one-half of all male cancer deaths in the middle age group (plus one-third in .