Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art. It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th centurywho had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences, philosophy and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. Portrait of a Young Woman c.
Published inthis icon of a book deserves its place as a model of historiography of the highest quality. Not many have served as a double linchpin. That was the more specific contrib How could I express the sheer pleasure I have had in reading this book?
That was the more specific contribution. But in this study Burckhardt also created a new field of inquiry. With him cultural history was born.
I have read it in translation, but the text is pure delectation nonetheless.
Burckhardt is in no hurry to express what he has to say because there is such assuredness in his ideas. Neither is there unwonted prolixity because his language is not more elaborate than his knowledge. His smooth prose keeps the same elegant pace as befits the dignity of his thought. For his erudition flows as clearly as limpid water.
His mastery results from his deep familiarity with a very wide collection of primary sources. He has read them all. And a similar acquaintanceship is demonstrated in other fields, whether these are painting, music, politics, ecclesiastical matters, sociological, military, etc.
His overall thesis is clear: And his thesis is then amply, soundly, thoroughly, and methodically elaborated and demonstrated. In his articulation of the historical understanding of culture he starts with the standard: Italy certainly offers him a wide array of possible systems, from large to smaller despotisms and its critics, and to its alternatives: But in all of these systems he has detected the disappearance of Feudalism, which was however sustained for a while longer in the other European countries.
For him then the political systems of Italy are works of art. In tracing the development of the Individual he does not stop short at the creation of new Personalities we now have the names for the craftsmenbut also looks at its other less glorious consequence: His elaboration of the Renewal of Antiquity is brilliant.
It involved more than exploring the ruins and resuscitating forgotten writers and translating new ones, but also its new forms of teaching, and the eventual stagnation of creativity. Stale imitation could easily become formulaic until it would bring about its own demise and loss of prestige.
This was the period in which frontiers were broken.
Burckhardt embarks on following those discoveries as the Italians set out in their travels, in their examination of their natural surroundings, whether this was for aesthetic discoveries, seeing for the first time that landscapes could be beautiful—as Petrarch demonstrated-- or for the revelation of scientific principles.
With the individual as the basic unit, the writing of biographies took a new impetus and emphasis in this land and this time.
He then proceeds with an exhaustive review of how this society structured itself; how its members communicated with each other—whether through language or other means—; how it projected itself—in dressing or in theatrics—; how and in what it sought entertainment, solace or merriment; in sum, how it lived.
As the son of a Calvinist priest, Burckhardt would have to leave for the end, and conclusion, how this new Individual, emerging after a long theocratical period, reconciled his existence with the realm of eternity, with immortality.
The last section is devoted to organized Religion and other beliefs, as well as to the slippery question of morals. For us this book remains a rich lesson. For what Burckhardt can still teach us about the Renaissance, and for the ingenious approach.
As a historian, he would not have denied that he was also part of his times, place and society.2 The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy by Jacob Burckhardt Table of Contents Part One: The State as a Work of Art Introduction Despots of the Fourteenth Century.
Imperialism is a form of humanitarianism ; It was the duty of the White Man (literal or figurative) to bring education and civilization to the natives in the world's dark places. Because for so long Burckhardt's 'Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy' defined what the Renaissance was, one must spend at least a little time with Burckhardt to understand current concepts of the Renaissance in any arteensevilla.coms: These old "alphabet pages" are being retained due to the many external links that refer to them.
But please note that they are NOT BEING UPDATED and will remain, as is, forever.
Please go to the main site page to find current information. For Burckhardt, Renaissance Italy did represent a distinctive epoch in the history of civilization though it is a gross misconception to claim, as has been done, that he . The Etruscan civilization (/ ɪ ˈ t r ʌ s k ən /) is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, south of the Arno river, western Umbria and northern and central Lazio.
As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest .